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What is Surveying in Civil Engineering?

by Soft2share.com

Surveying is a fundamental part of civil engineering and is used to gather information about the land, its topography, and other features. It involves the use of specialized equipment and techniques to measure, map, and analyze the physical characteristics of a piece of land.  

Surveying is an important part of civil engineering because it provides the data and information needed to design, construct, and maintain infrastructure projects, such as roads, bridges, buildings, and utilities. It is also used to assess the impact of development on the environment and to plan for natural disasters. 

Various Types of Surveying

Some common types of surveying used in civil engineering include:

  1. Geodetic surveying: This type of surveying involves the use of precise measurement techniques and equipment to determine the size and shape of the Earth, as well as the location of points on its surface.
  2. Topographic surveying: This type of surveying is used to create maps that show the elevation, slope, and other physical features of a piece of land.
  3. Hydrographic surveying: This type of surveying is used to map the features of bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans.
  4. Cadastral surveying: This type of surveying is used to establish property boundaries and create maps of land ownership.

 

What is Geodetic surveying?

Geodetic surveying is a type of surveying that involves the use of precise measurement techniques and equipment to determine the size and shape of the Earth, as well as the location of points on its surface. It is often used in large-scale mapping projects, such as those related to land use planning, construction, and resource management.

Geodetic surveying uses a variety of measurement tools like; Chains and Tapes and techniques, including GPS (Global Positioning System), satellite imagery, and aerial photography. These tools and techniques allow surveyors to accurately measure and map large areas of land, even over long distances.

Geodetic surveying is important because it provides accurate and precise data about the Earth’s surface, which is necessary for a wide range of applications, including land use planning, construction, resource management, and environmental studies. It is also used to establish benchmarks for other types of surveying and mapping projects.

What is Topographic surveying?

Topographic surveying is a type of surveying that is used to create maps that show the elevation, slope, and other physical features of a piece of land. These maps are known as topographic maps and are used to represent the three-dimensional features of a piece of land on a two-dimensional surface.

Topographic surveying involves the use of specialized equipment, such as total stations, GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, and level instruments, to measure and map the physical features of a piece of land. These measurements are used to create a topographic map, which shows the contours, elevations, and other features of the land, such as rivers, streams, buildings, and vegetation.

Topographic maps are used for a wide range of purposes, including land use planning, construction, resource management, environmental studies, and recreational activities. They are also used as a base map for other types of maps, such as hydrographic, cadastral, and geologic maps.

What is Hydrographic surveying?

Hydrographic surveying is a type of surveying that is used to map the features of bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. It involves the use of specialized equipment and techniques to measure and map the physical characteristics of bodies of water, including the depth, width, and shape of the water body, as well as the location and characteristics of submerged features, such as rocks, wrecks, and other obstacles.

Hydrographic surveying is typically conducted from a boat or other watercraft, using equipment such as echo sounders, GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, and specialized software to collect and analyze data. The data collected during a hydrographic survey is used to create maps and charts that show the underwater features of a body of water, as well as the location of navigational aids, such as buoys and beacons.

Hydrographic surveying is important for a wide range of applications, including marine navigation, construction of underwater structures, resource management, and environmental studies. It is also used to assess the impact of human activities, such as oil and gas exploration and development, on bodies of water.

What is Reconnaissance Survey?

Reconnaissance survey is a type of survey that is conducted to gather preliminary survey information about an area of land. It is typically the first step in a surveying project and is used to identify potential issues, such as physical and environmental constraints, that may affect the feasibility or design of a project.

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